Intellectual Property

Intellectual property (IP) is the law granting individuals exclusive rights to both artistic and commercial creations, such as photographs, writings or designs. The three main types of IP are trademarks, copyrights and patents.

A trademark is a unique symbol used by an individual or business to identify a specific product or service. A registered trademark is recognized with the letter R in a circle. Trademarks can be names, logos, phrases, distinctive designs, pictures, emblems, or wordings affixed to goods or used in conjunction with services to identify the manufacturer or service provider as the source of the good or service.

Copyrights are the exclusive rights of the author or creator of a literary or artistic property (such as a book, movie or musical composition) to print, copy, sell, license, distribute, transform to another medium, translate, record or perform or otherwise use (or not use) and to give it to another by will. Copyright work can range from poetry and choreography, to architecture and art.

Patents are granted for the creation of a process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter.

For claims of IP ownership, there are necessary steps to attain registration for your creation in order to receive sufficient protection from infringement. It is your legal right as the owner of unique creative property to apply the proper repercussions when there is a case of patent, trademark or copyright infringement. Read more about patent protection, copyright protection or trademark protection to assure your work is legally protected.

-copyright registration

-copyright litigation

-trademark searches & registration

-trademark litigation

-patent litigation

External Resources:

Trademark registration:

Intellectual property with side links:

United States Patent & Trademark Office:

What is Patent, Trademark, Copyright:

United States Copyright Office:

Copyright Act Title 17:

Lanham Act:

American Society of Media Photographers:


Department of Commerce:

European Patent Office:

International Trademark Association:

Copyright reference sources on the Internet:

The Copyright Act (Copyright Office website):

United States Copyright Office homepage:

Stanford University Library Copyright & Fair Use Site:

Cornell Law School’s Legal Information Institute Copyright Law collection: (including another copy of the copyright statute):

Columbia Law Library Music Plagiarism Project collection of MIDI files, MP3 files and partial scores from songs involved in infringment cases:

Professor Laura Gassaway’s Chart: “When Works Pass Into the Public Domain”:

International and Comparative Copyright Resources

The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works:

The WIPO Copyright Treaty:

WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty:

UNESCO’s collection of national copyright laws:

International Intellectual Property Alliance Home Page: